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Hardware Intellectual Property (IP) Protection at Different Levels of Design Abstraction: A Technology Platform for Secure and Trustworthy Electronic Hardware

An effective and low-cost solution using physical unclonable functions to protect against Hardware Trojans attacks


Hardware Trojans are an emerging attack into microchips - of critical importance to national security - where an attacker inserts a malicious circuit inside a microchip during fabrication. It is a “needle in a haystack” problem: detecting a small malicious circuit among a billion transistor chips is an extremely difficult problem.

A hardware Trojan can be extremely minute (10-100 transistors) in size compared to a modern, billion transistor microchip. Also, an attacker has an undue advantage - the Trojan can be designed in numerous forms and sizes and can be inserted in any part of a complex design. So a deterministic test to detect all possible Trojans in a chip is practically unfeasible. On the other hand, the MERO

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